So they say, the earth was formed by a collision which happened of 4.5 million years ago! And, it’s still cooling down and classified as one of the terrestrial planets as it is made out of rocks, just like Mercury, Venus, Mars. Unlike the gas giants, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus Neptune, A.K.A the gas giants. How about the moon? Well, they also say that the moon was one of those collisions and the moon was a piece that was flying of our earth. The speed and the strength of the moon zooming out wasn’t as strong as our earths gravitational pull and the moon stopped in its place. Some of the scientists thoughts on why the moon has those craters, cause of the crash…
Hey, it’s highly important to know what the very thing that we live on is made up of. Come on. People who have tried to study and experiment on the second layer of the earth, which is the mantle have failed. The biggest whole that was drilled, called Kola Superdeep Borehole in Russia, just came down to 12 km. The crust, first layer where we live on, itself is already 40 km so they didn’t really have the chance to see the mantle. So I wondered how did they find the inner core, outer core, mantle and crust? One word. Technology. Scientist detect the seismic waves that bounce of through the earth. The waves bounce of the layers with the information of the density. Here are the layers:
- First and outer most layer of the planet.
- The Continental Crust is about 40 km thick.
- The Oceanic Crust layer is about 8 km, that is very thin (scary!!!).
- Mainly made up of two volcanic rocks, Granite and Basalt.
- Middle Layer
- Has the thickness of about 2,900 km
- Made up of Magma (melted rocks)
- Around 2000C
- Scientist have had a hard time trying to find out about this layer.
- It’s the center of our planet, about 6,400 km far from the crust.
- Scientist are guessing that the temperature down there is an estimate of 7,000c
Men, look ahead! We’ve found land!!!
Don’t the explorers of the earth have such a thrill as they explore new land? There was this German geographer called Alfred Wegener who said that all the continents were one, and he named this Pangaea which is a Greek word for “one earth.” Of course, no one really believed him at his time but a lot scientist see the matching jigsaw of the continents that he saw before and matched it up with all the evidence they found. For example, there was this, now extinct, water creature’s fossils that they found both in South America and Africa, this same animal could not fly and swim far distances. They asked themselves how? And, later on, scientists approved Wegener’s continental drift theory. Amazing.
How about the mountains? They form by the plates that push against each other to form a hill. The scientist who study this sort of thing call the plates —> tectonic plates. There are three ways a mountain can be built up –> Volcanic, fold and block mountains:
I. Volcanic Mountains
Tectonic plates are pushed together forcing the magma to enter the earth surface. <– This often makes up a volcanic mountain or a stratovolcano. There are a few mountains that you’ve probably heard of that are made in these steps such as: Mauna Loa (In Hawaii) and Mount Fuji (in Japan). There are some people who fear that an earthquake may wake up the Mount Fuji which will cause a second big disaster.
Worlds tallest Mountains
From the wikipedia “Mount Everest, also known in Nepal as Sagarmāthā and in China as Chomolungma/珠穆朗玛峰, is Earth‘s highest mountain. Its peak is 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) above sea level. Mount Everest is located in the Mahalangurmountain range in Nepal. The international border between China (Tibet Autonomous Region) and Nepal runs across Everest’s precise summit point. Its massifincludes neighbouring peaks Lhotse, 8,516 m (27,940 ft); Nuptse, 7,855 m (25,771 ft) and Changtse, 7,580 m (24,870 ft).”
From the Wikipedia “Mount Kilimanjaro (pronunciation: /ˌkɪlɪmənˈdʒɑːroʊ/), with its three volcanic cones, “Kibo”, “Mawenzi”, and “Shira”, is a dormant volcano in Tanzania. It is the highest mountainin Africa, and rises approximately 4,900 m (16,000 ft) from its base to 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level. The first recorded ascent to the summit of the mountain was by Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller in 1889. The mountain is part of the Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major climbing destination. The mountain has been the subject of many scientific studies because of its shrinking glaciers.”
From the Wikipedia ”
Kangchenjunga (Nepali: कञ्चनजङ्घा; Hindi: कंचनजंघा; Sikkimese: ཁང་ཅེན་ཛོཾག་), sometimes spelled Kanchenjunga, is the third highest mountain in the world, and lies partly in Nepal and partly in Sikkim, India. It rises with an elevation of 8,586 m (28,169 ft) in a section of the Himalayas called Kangchenjunga Himal that is limited in the west by the Tamur River, in the north by the Lhonak Chu and Jongsang La, and in the east by the Teesta River. It lies about 128 km (80 mi) east of Mount Everest.
Kangchenjunga is the second highest mountain of the Himalayas after Mount Everest. Three of the five peaks – Main, Central and South – are on the border between North Sikkim and Nepal. Two peaks are in the Taplejung District, Nepal.
From the Wikipedia “Lhotse (Nepali: ल्होत्से; Tibetan: ལྷོ་རྩེ) is the fourth highest mountain in the world at 8,516 metres (27,940 ft), after Mount Everest, K2, and Kangchenjunga. Part of the Everest massif, Lhotse is connected to the latter peak via the South Col. Lhotse means “South Peak” in Tibetan. In addition to the main summit at 8,516 metres (27,940 ft) above sea level, the mountain comprises the smaller peaks Lhotse Middle (East) at 8,414 m (27,605 ft), and Lhotse Shar at 8,383 m (27,503 ft). The summit is on the border between China, Tibet and the Khumbu region of Nepal.”
From the Wikipedia ”
Makalu (Nepal: मकालु; China: Makaru) is the fifth highest mountain in the world at 8,485 metres (27,838 ft). It is located in the Mahalangur Himalayas 19 km (12 mi) southeast of Mount Everest, on the border between Nepaland China. One of the eight-thousanders, Makalu is an isolated peak whose shape is a four-sided pyramid.
Makalu has two notable subsidiary peaks. Kangchungtse, or Makalu II (7,678 m) lies about 3 km (2 mi) north-northwest of the main summit. Rising about 5 km (3.1 mi) north-northeast of the main summit across a broad plateau, and connected to Kangchungtse by a narrow, 7,200 m saddle, is Chomo Lonzo (7,804 m).
Just like a pimple, volcanoes can explode. BAM! BAM! BOOOOM! some volcanoes can be a mountain which changes it’s mind and decides to explode. But of course the scientific version is that the magma below us kind of seeps out and you know the rest. What surprises me most is the island, Hawaii. It is made up of five volcanoes and two of those
volcanoes are still active; dormant, an active volcano. How scary it would be to go to anywhere with an active volcano since it’s hard to know exactly when a volcano will erupt. But, most volcanoes erupt at faults and there are more than 1,500 active volcanoes on this earth. Yikes. Also, how they classify a volcano is just when the last time it erupted. How can we know for sure?! Ever?! I guess technology.
Earthquake, everybody run!!!!
There are two ways the earth can expand and move. One, there is the more calmer one where barely anyone notices anything moving. An example, Mt. Everest, it grows every year and most climbers don’t notice the movement. The two plates that form Mt. Everest slowly push against each other but doesn’t cause havoc or much hassle. Did you know that there are more mountains and trenches under water than on land? But, earth quakes are the more violent and messy part. They can just be a light push or strong enough to knock down the highest buildings and cause MASS DESTRUCTION. Honestly, when I experienced an earthquake I was petrified. I didn’t know what to do. I was on the bed and I heard a creaking sound and then everything started to shake, everything happened to fast. I shouted at my two sisters who were in front of the tv watching national geographic. I ran to them literally holding the tv which nearly fell on top of my two sisters. After I ran out of the house, everything calmed. It was just a light earthquake, but scary. Wow, remembered it like yesterday. Have you watched the movie San Andreas? They say that the San Andreas, or the Ring of Fire, was one of the strongest earthquakes.This has made a big, big, big, big fault. It hasn’t come for years and years and years now but some people are worried when the next Boom will come.